Epidemiological research is an important tool for the improvement of preventive and curative healthcare. A valid study design, unbiased study conduct and proper interpretation of study results are essential, as these provide the foundation for evidence-based medicine. This book provides guidance on how to design, conduct and interpret human population-based medical research. It reflects the diversity in the field and will therefore discuss the methodology of etiological, diagnostic, prognostic and intervention research. This textbook is written for bachelor’s and master’s degree students receiving training in the biomedical sciences and for practitioners in the medical and allied professions. It will also serve as a reference manual for those with basic or advanced experience of epidemiology.